Review for First Rhetoric Exam


First Exam Review
Exam is Friday, February 14th


1.     Critical Thinking

2.     Arguments and Evaluating Arguments

a.      Statements

b.     Conclusions and premises

c.      “good” arguments

d.     Deductive validity and inductive strength

e.      Deductive soundness and inductive cogency

f.      Principle of Charity

g.     Principle of Rational Acceptance

3.     Deductive argument patterns

a.      Hypothetical syllogisms (modus ponens, chain argument, modus tollens, denying the antecedent, affirming the consequent), and which are unreliable

b.     Categorical syllogisms

c.      Argument by elimination

d.     Argument by mathematics

e.      Argument by definition

4.     Inductive argument patterns

a.      Generalizations

b.     Prediction

c.      Argument from authority

d.     Causal argument

e.      Statistical argument

f.      Analogy

5.     Fallacies of relevance

a.      Ad hominem abusive

b.     Ad hominem circumstantial

c.      To quoque

d.     Two wrongs

e.      Argumentum ad baculum

f.      Argumentum ad misericoriam

g.     Argumentum ad populum

h.     Straw man

i.       Red herring

j.       Equivocation

k.     Argumentum ad ignoratiam

l.       Begging the question

m.   Ignoratio elenchi

n.     Accident

6.     Fallacies of Evidence

a.      Argumentum ad verecundiam

b.     False alternatives

c.      Loaded question

d.     Questionable cause (post hoc, mere correlation, oversimplification)

e.      Hasty generalization

f.      Slippery slope

g.     Weak analogy

h.     Inconsistency

7.     Why fallacies occur and why we should avoid them

Things You Might Be Asked to Do

1.     Define the characteristics of good critical thinking

2.     Discuss the barriers to critical thinking

3.     Distinguish between statements and non-statements

4.     Identify premises and conclusions

5.     Distinguish between arguments and non-arguments

6.     Discuss the differences between deductive and inductive arguments, and why we use one instead of the other

7.     Distinguish between deductive and inductive arguments

8.     Discuss the characteristics that make an argument “good.”

9.     Discuss the difference between a fallacy of relevance and a fallacy of evidence.

10.  Identify fallacies (the exam will have a list of fallacies)